Tuesday, October 1, 2019

Mauryan Empire

SYLLABUS OF FIRST PAPER OF TET Paper II (for classes VI to VIII) Elementary Stage: 30 Questions I. Child Development and Pedagogy 15 Questions a) Child Development (Elementary School Child) †¢ Concept of development and its relationship with learning †¢ Principles of the development of children †¢ Influence of Heredity & Environment †¢ Socialization processes: Social world & children (Teacher, Parents, Peers) †¢ Piaget, Kohlberg and Vygotsky: constructs and critical perspectives †¢ Concepts of child-centered and progressive education †¢ Critical perspective of the construct of Intelligence Multi Dimensional Intelligence †¢ Language & Thought †¢ Gender as a social construct; gender roles, gender-bias and educational practice †¢ Individual differences among learners, understanding differences based on diversity of language, caste, gender, community, religion etc. †¢ Distinction between Assessment for learning and assessment of lear ning; SchoolBased Assessment, Continuous & Comprehensive Evaluation: perspective and practice †¢ Formulating appropriate questions for assessing readiness levels of learners; for enhancing learning and critical thinking in the classroom and or assessing learner achievement. b) Concept of Inclusive education and understanding children with special needs 5 Questions †¢ Addressing learners from diverse backgrounds including disadvantaged and deprived †¢ Addressing the needs of children with learning difficulties, ‘impairment’ etc †¢ Addressing the Talented, Creative, Specially abled Learners c) Learning and Pedagogy 10 Questions †¢ How children think and learn; how and why children ‘fail’ to achieve success in school performance †¢ Basic processes of teaching and learning; children’s strategies of learning; learning as social activity; social context of learning. †¢ Child as a problem solver and a ‘scientific inv estigator’ Alternative conceptions of learning in children; understanding children’s ‘errors’ as significant steps in the learning process. †¢ Cognition & Emotions †¢ Motivation and learning †¢ Factors contributing to learning personal & environmental II. Language I. 30 Questions a) Language Comprehension 15 Questions Reading unseen passages- two passages one prose or drama and one poem with questions on comprehension, inference, grammar and verbal ability (Prose passage may e literary, scientific, narrative or discursive) b) Pedagogy of Language Development 15 Questions †¢ Learning and acquisition †¢ Principles of language Teaching †¢ Role of listening and speaking; function of language and how children use it as a tool †¢ Critical perspective on the role of grammar in learning a language for communicating ideas verbally and in written form; †¢ Challenges of teaching language in a diverse classroom; language difficu lties, errors and disorders †¢ Language Skills †¢ Evaluating language comprehension and proficiency: speaking, listening, reading and writing Teaching-learning materials: Textbook, multi-media materials, multilingual resource of the classroom †¢ Remedial Teaching III. Language- II 30 Questions a)Comprehension 15 Questions Two unseen prose passages (discursive or literary or narrative or scientific) with questions on comprehension, grammar and verbal ability b) Pedagogy of Language Development 15 Questions †¢ Learning and acquisition †¢ Principles of language Teaching †¢ Role of listening and speaking; function of language and how children use it as a tool †¢ Critical perspective on the role of grammar in learning a language for communicating deas verbally and in written form; †¢ Challenges of teaching language in a diverse classroom; language difficulties, errors and disorders †¢ Language Skills †¢ Evaluating language comprehension a nd proficiency: speaking, listening, reading and writing †¢ Teaching-learning materials: Textbook, multi-media materials, multilingual resource of the classroom †¢ Remedial Teaching ____________________________________________________________ _____ SECTION 2 Section-I CHILD DEVELPOMENT AND PEDAGOGY 1. Raja, a student of your class, is very tense due to the acne on his face. What will u do? (1) Ignore him. 2) Tell him that it is normal and is due to hormonal changes. (3) Tell him to go to a doctor as it is a medical problem. (4) Scold and tell him not to waste time on these issues. 2. A student wants to share his personal problems and asks for permission to call on u at your residence. What should be your response? (1) Avoid giving time. (2) Give an appointment readily. (3) Tell him that u do not encourage students to visit at the residence. (4) Ignore the child. 3. If you come to know that a child of your class is facing problems related to parents’ separation at ho me, what would you do? 1) Do not talk to the child on this issue. (2) Treat her/him sympathetically. (3) Talk to the parents. (4) Be indifferent to the child. 4. If you come to know that the father of a student has been tested HIV positive, what will you do? (1) Disclose the information to the class. (2) Make the child sit separately. (3) Ask the parents to withdraw the child. (4) Let him continue with the studies like others. 5. Kavya a student of your class, is visually challenged and you have a function coming up. What will you do? (1) Give her the part of a narrator. 2) Ask her to stay at home during the function. (3) Discourage her from participating. (4) Give her a less important duty. 6. Manjusha is very interested in sports and wants to pursue her career in sports. What will you suggest to her? (1) Girls have no future in sports. (2) She should put in hard work to achieve her ambition. (3) Ask her to be focused only in academics. (4) Girls cannot excel in sports as they are not physically strong. 7. Twelve year old Radhika has begun to imitate the style of talking of her teacher. This form of behavior is known as- (1) compensation (2) transference (3) sublimation (4) egocentrism 8. For conducting a social science class in an interesting way, teachers should- (1) give notes (2) give written homework (3) use role-plays effectively (4) encourage extra reading 9. A 11-12 year old child generally faces more problems related to- (1) eye hand coordination (2) anxiety about studies. (3) need for peer approval (4) understanding mathematics. 10. Which of the following is most essential for learning? (1) Good parent child relationship (2) High intelligence (3) Good school (4) Desire to learn 11. Which of the following is not good for quality learning? (1) Making notes (3) Extra reading (3) Using guide books (4) Self Study 12. Which of the following may damage a low achieving student psychologically? (1) Making children maintain record of the class test marks. (2) Discussing the marks of individual students in the class. (3) Discussing the correct answers in the class. 4) Making children correct their own notebooks. 13. When most of the students in a class do not understand a concept clearly, the teacher should- (1) repeat the lesson once again. (2) conduct hands on activities on that concept. (3) Ask students to take help from parents. (4) ignore and move to the next concept. 14. To correct the stammering problem of a class VIII student, a teacher should (1) ignore the child. (2) provide more opportunities for speaking. (3) c heck the child whenever she/he stammers. (4) seek professional help. 15. Which of the following statements about the role of a teacher is correct? 1) Teacher should be a critic only. (2) Teacher should favour good students. (3) Teacher should have a friendly attitude towards students. (4) Teacher should maintain a distance from students. 16. For ensuring and improving class discipline, the teacher should- (1) arrange regular parent- teacher meetings. (2) Call authorities to the class. (3) be strict with students and punish them. (4) evaluate the methods and approaches used in the class. 17. To address the diversity in academic achievement, an effective teaching method can be – (1) dictating notes (2) cooperative teaching. 3) lecturing (4)giving tests. 18. In which stage of cognitive development is a child, when she/he is able to work out problems logically and can do multiple classification? (1) Pre operational stage (2) Formal operational stage (3) Concrete operation stage ( 4) Sensori-motor stage 19. Gaurav of class VII gave a letter to his classmate Seema saying that he loves her. What should the teacher do? (1) Ignore the issue (2) Punish Gaurav (3) Counsel Gaurav appropriately (4) Let the Principal handle the issue 20. Children from the under privileged sections of the society can benefit more if they are (1) provided with training for self employment (2) exempted from homework and class tests. (3) provided with richer learning environment in school. (4) given simpler learning tasks. 21. Students in classes VII-VIII face problems mostly related to (1) identity crisis. (2) emotional sensitivity. (3) low interest in academic. (4) hyperactivity. 22. The term comprehensive evaluation implies- (1) evaluation conducted at several points of time. (2) evaluation by a group of teachers. (3) Several tests for long hours. 4) evaluation of scholastic and Co-scholastic aspects of pupil growth. 23. Talking to children of classes VI to VIII about â€Å"Growing up† is – (1) not required (2) essential. (3) counterproductive (4) detrimental 24. Which of the following statements about teaching is true? (1) Teaching is a prerequisite of learning. (2) Teaching facilitates learning. (3) Teaching restricts initiative of learners. (4) Teaching is necessary for good learning. 25. Sandhya and Mamta of class VII are bright students but are extremely jealous of each other. How will you, as a teacher, handle them? 1) Not bother as they will outgrow it. (2) Talk to them discreetly about healthy competition. (3) Discuss this with the whole class. (4) Convey your disapproval to them. 26. In a class, a student asks the teacher a question and the answer is not known to the teacher. As a teacher you should- (1) scold the child for asking such questions. (2) ignore the child and continue teaching. (3) tell the child that you will look for the answer. (4) feel ashamed that you did not known the answer. 27. A student who had misbehaved with the teacher in class VI, comes to the same teacher in class VIII. S/He avoids interacting with the teacher due to his/ her behavior. The teacher should (1) ignore the child. (2) remind the child of her/his past behaviour. (3) reassure her/him in a personal discussion. (4) call the parents and report the incidence. 28. Raju, a student of your class, is being teased by his classmates for his dark complexion. What do you need to do as a teacher? (1) Ignore this issue (2) Reprimand the class. (3) Tell Raju not to pay attention. (4) Talk to the class about individual differences. 29. Salim is very good in music but is not able to do well in Mathematics. As a teacher of Mathematics, how will you handle Salim? (1) Tell him that Music does not have a future. (2) Tell him to leave Music and study Maths. (3) Call his parents and talk to them. (4) Tell him that he can do well and explain the concepts to him. 30. While teaching if you realize that what you have taught is not correct, you should- (1) leave the topic unfinished and shift to another. (2) Tell the students that it was a mistake and correct it. (3) divert the attention of the students. (4) Scold students to finish the remaining tasks. Mauryan Empire The  Maurya Empire  was a  geographically extensive  Iron Age  historical power  in  ancient India, ruled by the  Mauryan dynasty  from 321 to 185 BC. Originating from the kingdom of  Magadha  in the  Indo-Gangetic plains  (modern  Bihar, eastern  Uttar Pradesh  and  Bengal) in the eastern side of theIndian subcontinent, the empire had its capital city at  Pataliputra  (modern  Patna). The Empire was founded in 322 BC by  Chandragupta Maurya, who had overthrown the  Nanda Dynasty  and rapidly expanded his power westwards across central and western  India  taking advantage of the disruptions of local  powers  in the wake of the withdrawal westward by  Alexander the Great's Greek and Persian armies. By 320 BC the empire had fully occupied Northwestern India, defeating and conquering the  satraps  left by Alexander. With an area of 5,000,000 sq km, it was one of the world's  largest empires  in its time, and the largest ever in the Indian subcontinent. At its greatest extent, the empire stretched to the north along the natural boundaries of the  Himalayas, and to the east stretching into what is nowAssam. To the west, it conquered beyond modern  Pakistan, annexing  Balochistan, south eastern parts of  Iran  and much of what is nowAfghanistan, including the modern  Herat and  Kandahar  provinces. The Empire was expanded into India's central and southern regions by the emperors Chandragupta and  Bindusara, but it excluded a small portion of unexplored tribal and forested regions near  Kalinga  (modern  Orissa), till it was conquered by  Ashoka. Its decline began 60 years after Ashoka's rule ended, and it dissolved in 185 BC with the foundation of the  Sunga Dynasty  in Magadha. Under  Chandragupta, the Mauryan Empire conquered the trans-Indus  region, which was under Macedonian rule. Chandragupta then defeated the invasion led by  Seleucus I, a Greek general from Alexander's army. Under Chandragupta and his successors, internal and external trade, agriculture and economic activities, all thrived and expanded across India thanks to the creation of a single and efficient system of finance, administration, and security. After the  Kalinga War, the Empire experienced half a century of peace and security under Ashoka. Mauryan India also enjoyed an era of social harmony, religious transformation, and expansion of the sciences and of knowledge. Chandragupta Maurya's embrace of  Jainism  increased social and religious renewal and reform across his society, while Ashoka's embrace of  Buddhism  has been said to have been the foundation of the reign of social and political peace and non-violence across all of India. Ashoka sponsored the spreading of Buddhist ideals into  Sri Lanka, Southeast Asia, West Asia and Mediterranean Europe. The population of the empire has been estimated to be about 50-60 million making the Mauryan Empire one of the most populous empires of the time. Archaeologically, the period of Mauryan rule in South Asia falls into the era of  Northern Black Polished Ware  (NBPW). The  Arthashastra  and theEdicts of Ashoka  are the primary sources of written records of Mauryan times. The  Lion Capital of Asoka  at  Sarnath, has been made the nationalemblem  of India. Chanakya and Chandragupta Maurya A symbolic statue of young Chandragupta Maurya, In the courtyard of  Indian Parliament, with the inscription, â€Å"Shepherd boy-Chandragupta Maurya dreaming of India he was to create†. Main articles:  Chanakya  and  Chandragupta Maurya A  Hindu  brahmin  named  Chanakya  (real name Vishnugupta, also known as Kautilya) traveled to  Magadha, a kingdom that was large and militarily powerful and feared by its neighbors, but was dismissed by its king  Dhana Nanda, of the  Nanda Dynasty. Meanwhile, the conquering armies of  Alexander the Great  refused to cross the  Beas Riverand advance further eastward, deterred by the prospect of battling Magadha. Alexander returned to  Babylon  and re-deployed most of his troops west of the  Indus  river. Soon after Alexander died in  Babylon  in  323 BCE, his empire fragmented, and local kings declared their independence, leaving several smaller disunited satraps. Chandragupta Maurya deposed Dhana Nanda. The Greek generals  Eudemus, and  Peithon, ruled until around  316 BCE, when Chandragupta Maurya (with the help of Chanakya, who was now his advisor) utterly defeated the Macedonians and consolidated the region under the control of his new seat of power in Magadha. Chandragupta maurya rise to power is shrouded in mystery and controversy. On the one hand, a number of ancient Indian accounts, such as the drama  Mudrarakshasa(Poem of Rakshasa  Ã¢â‚¬â€œÃ‚  Rakshasa  was the prime minister of Magadha) by Visakhadatta, describe his royal ancestry and even link him with the Nanda family. A  kshatriya  tribe known as the  Maurya's are referred to in the earliest Buddhist texts,  Mahaparinibbana Sutta. However, any conclusions are hard to make without further historical evidence. Chandragupta first emerges in Greek accounts as â€Å"Sandrokottos†. As a young man he is said to have met Alexander. He is also said to have met the Nanda king, angered him, and made a narrow escape. Chanakya's original intentions were to train a guerilla army under Chandragupta's command. The Mudrarakshasa of Visakhadutta as well as the Jaina work Parisishtaparvan talk of Chandragupta's alliance with the Himalayan king Parvatka, sometimes identified with Porus . Conquest of Magadha Main articles:  Chandragupta Maurya,  Nanda Dynasty, and  Magadha Chanakya encouraged Chandragupta Maurya and his army to take over the throne of Magadha. Using his intelligence network, Chandragupta gathered many young men from across Magadha and other provinces, men upset over the corrupt and oppressive rule of king Dhana, plus resources necessary for his army to fight a long series of battles. These men included the former general of Taxila, other accomplished students of Chanakya, the representative of King Porus of Kakayee, his son Malayketu, and the rulers of small states. Preparing to invade Pataliputra, Maurya hatched a plan. A battle was announced and the Magadhan army was drawn from the city to a distant battlefield to engage Maurya's forces. Maurya's general and spies meanwhile bribed the corrupt general of Nanda. He also managed to create an atmosphere of civil war in the kingdom, which culminated in the death of the heir to the throne. Chanakya managed to win over popular sentiment. Ultimately Nanda resigned, handing power to Chandragupta, and went into exile and was never heard of again. Chanakya contacted the prime minister, Rakshasas, and made him understand that his loyalty was to Magadha, not to the Magadha dynasty, insisting that he continue in office. Chanakya also reiterated that choosing to resist would start a war that would severely affect Magadha and destroy the city. Rakshasa accepted Chanakya's reasoning, and Chandragupta Maurya was legitimately installed as the new King of Magadha. Rakshasa became Chandragupta's chief advisor, and Chanakya assumed the position of an elder statesman. ————————————————- Chandragupta Maurya when  Seleucus I, ruler of the  Seleucid Empire, tried to reconquer the northwestern parts of India, during a campaign in 305 BCE, but failed. The two rulers finally concluded a peace treaty: a marital treaty (Epigamia) was concluded, in which the Greeks offered their Princess for alliance and help from him. Chandragupta snatched the satrapies of  Paropamisade  (Kamboja  and  Gandhara),  Arachosia(Kandhahar) and  Gedrosia  (Balochistan), and  Seleucus I  received 500  war elephants  that were to have a decisive role in his victory against westernHellenistic  kings at the  Battle of Ipsus  in 301 BCE. Diplomatic relations were established and several Greeks, such as the historian  Megasthenes,Deimakos  and  Dionysius  resided at the Mauryan court. Chandragupta established a strong centralized state with a complex administration at Pataliputra, which, according to Megasthenes, was†surrounded by a wooden wall pierced by 64 gates and 570 towers— (and) rivaled the splendors of contemporaneous  Persian  sites such as  Susaand  Ecbatana. †Ã‚  Chandragupta's son  Bindusara  extended the rule of the Mauryan empire towards southern India. He also had a Greek ambassador at his court, named  Deimachus  (Strabo  1–70). Megasthenes describes a disciplined multitude under Chandragupta, who live simply, honestly, and do not know writing: † The Indians all live frugally, especially when in camp. They dislike a great undisciplined multitude, and consequently they observe good order. Theft is of very rare occurrence. Megasthenes says that those who were in the camp of Sandrakottos, wherein lay 400,000 men, found that the thefts reported on any one day did not exceed the value of two hundred drachmae, and this among a people who have no written laws, but are ignorant of writing, and must therefore in all the business of life trust to memory. They live, nevertheless, happily enough, being simple in their manners and frugal. They never drink wine except at sacrifices. Their beverage is a liquor composed from rice instead of barley, and their food is principally a rice-pottage. ————————————————- ————————————————- Ahoka the Great Chandragupta's grandson i. e. , Bindusara's son was Ashokavardhan Maurya, also known as Ashoka or Ashoka The Great (ruled 273- 232 BCE). As a young prince, Ashoka was a brilliant commander who crushed revolts in Ujjain and Taxila. As monarch he was ambitious and aggressive, re-asserting the Empire's superiority in southern and western India. But it was his conquest of  Kalinga  which proved to be the pivotal event of his life. Although Ashoka's army succeeded in overwhelming Kalinga forces of royal soldiers and civilian units, an estimated 100,000 soldiers and civilians were killed in the furious warfare, including over 10,000 of Ashoka's own men. Hundreds of thousands of people were adversely affected by the destruction and fallout of war. When he personally witnessed the devastation, Ashoka began feeling remorse, and he cried ‘what have I done? ‘. Although the annexation of Kalinga was completed, Ashoka embraced the teachings of  Gautama Buddha, and renounced war and violence. For a monarch in ancient times, this was an historic feat. Ashoka implemented principles of  ahimsa  by banning hunting and violent sports activity and ending indentured and forced labor (many thousands of people in war-ravaged Kalinga had been forced into hard labor and servitude). While he maintained a large and powerful army, to keep the peace and maintain authority, Ashoka expanded friendly relations with states across Asia and Europe, and he sponsored Buddhist missions. He undertook a massive public works building campaign across the country. Over 40 years of peace, harmony and prosperity made Ashoka one of the most successful and famous monarchs in Indian history. He remains an idealized figure of inspiration in modern India. The  Edicts of Ashoka, set in stone, are found throughout the Subcontinent. Ranging from as far west as  Afghanistan  and as far south as Andhra (Nellore District), Ashoka's edicts state his policies and accomplishments. Although predominantly written in Prakrit, two of them were written in  Greek, and one in both Greek and  Aramaic. Ashoka's edicts refer to the Greeks,  Kambojas, and Gandharas  as peoples forming a frontier region of his empire. They also attest to Ashoka's having sent envoys to the Greek rulers in the West as far as the Mediterranean. The edicts precisely name each of the rulers of the  Hellenic  world at the time such as  Amtiyoko  (Antiochus),  Tulamaya  (Ptolemy),  Amtikini  (Antigonos),  Maka  (Magas) and  Alikasudaro  (Alexander) as recipients of Ashoka's proselytism. The Edicts also accurately locate their territory â€Å"600 yojanas away† (a yojanas being about 7 miles), corresponding to the distance between the center of India and Greece (roughly 4,000 miles). [14] ————————————————- Administration Mauryan ringstone, with standing goddess. Northwest Pakistan. 3rd century BCE. British Museum. The Empire was divided into four provinces, which one of the four, look like a giant crescents. with the imperial capital at  Pataliputra. From Ashokan edicts, the names of the four provincial capitals are  Tosali  (in the east),  Ujjain  in the west,  Suvarnagiri  (in the south), and  Taxila  (in the north). The head of the provincial administration was the  Kumara  (royal prince), who governed the provinces as king's representative. The  kumara  was assisted by Mahamatyas and council of ministers. This organizational structure was reflected at the imperial level with the Emperor and his  Mantriparishad  (Council of Ministers). Historians theorize that the organization of the Empire was in line with the extensive bureaucracy described by  Kautilya  in the  Arthashastra: a sophisticated civil service governed everything from municipal hygiene to international trade. The expansion and defense of the empire was made possible by what appears to have been the largest standing army of its time†¦. According to Megasthenes, the empire wielded a military of 600,000 infantry, 30,000 cavalry, and 9,000 war elephants. A vast  espionage  system collected intelligence for both internal and external security purposes. Having renounced offensive warfare and expansionism, Ashoka nevertheless continued to maintain this large army, to protect the Empire and instill stability and peace across West and South Asia Economy Silver punch mark coin of the  Mauryan empire, with symbols of wheel and elephant. 3rd century BCE. For the first time in South Asia, political unity and military security allowed for a common economic system and enhanced trade and commerce, with increased agricultural productivity. The previous situation involving hundreds of kingdoms, many small armies, powerful regional chieftains, and internecine warfare, gave way to a disciplined central authority. Farmers were freed of tax and crop collection burdens from regional kings, paying instead to a nationally administered and strict-but-fair system of taxation as advised by the principles in the  Arthashastra. Chandragupta Maurya established a single currency across India, and a network of regional governors and administrators and a civil service provided justice and security for merchants, farmers and traders. The Mauryan army wiped out many gangs of bandits, regional private armies, and powerful chieftains who sought to impose their own supremacy in small areas. Although regimental in revenue collection, Maurya also sponsored many public works and waterways to enhance productivity, while internal trade in India expanded greatly due to newfound political unity and internal peace. Mauryan cast copper coin. Late 3rd century BCE. British Museum. Under the Indo-Greek friendship treaty, and during Ashoka's reign, an international network of trade expanded. The  Khyber Pass, on the modern boundary ofPakistan  and  Afghanistan, became a strategically important port of trade and intercourse with the outside world. Greek states and Hellenic kingdoms in West Asia became important trade partners of India. Trade also extended through the  Malay peninsula  into Southeast Asia. India's exports included silk goods and textiles, spices and exotic foods. The Empire was enriched further with an exchange of scientific knowledge and technology with Europe and West Asia. Ashoka also sponsored the construction of thousands of roads, waterways, canals, hospitals, rest-houses and other public works. The easing of many over-rigorous administrative practices, including those regarding taxation and crop collection, helped increase productivity and economic activity across the Empire. In many ways, the economic situation in the Mauryan Empire is analogous to the Roman Empire of several centuries later. Both had extensive trade connections and both had organizations similar to  corporations. While Rome had organizational entities which were largely used for public state-driven projects, Mauryan India had numerous private commercial entities. These existed purely for private commerce and developed before the Mauryan Empire itself. The Economic History of the Corporate Form in Ancient India. University of Michigan. ————————————————- ————————————————- Religion Balarama, holding mace and conch (lower right) on a Maurya coin. Balarama was originally a powerful independent deity of Hinduism, and was considered an avatar of  Vishnu. 3rd–2nd century CE. British Museum. Buddhist  stupas  during the Mauryan period were simple mounds without decorations. Butkara stupa, 3rd century BCE. Buddhist  proselytism  at the time of kingAshoka  (260–218 BCE). Mauryan architecture in the  Barabar Mounts. Grottoe of Lomas Richi. 3rd century BCE. Hinduism Hinduism  was the only religion at the time of inception of the empire, Hindu priests and ministers use to be an important part of the emperor's court, like  Chanakya  also known as  Vishnu Gupt. Ajivikas, an  ascetic  Hindu movement was also practiced, Bhattotpala, in 950 A. D. identified them with the â€Å"Ekandandins† writes that they are devotees of Narayana (Vishnu), although Shilanka speaking of the Ekandandins in another connection identifies them as Shaivas (devotees of  Shiva). Scholar James Hastings identifies the name â€Å"Mankhaliputta† or â€Å"Mankhali† with the  bamboo staff. Scholar Jitendra N. Banerjea compares them to the  Pasupatas  Shaivas. It is believed by scholar Charpentier that the Ajivikas before Makkhali Goshala worshiped Shiva. Chanakya wrote in his text  Chanakya Niti, â€Å"Humbly bowing down before the almighty Lord Sri Vishnu, the Lord of the three worlds, I recite maxims of the science of political ethics (niti) selected from the various satras (scriptures)† Even after embracing Buddhism, Ashoka retained the membership of Hindu Brahmana priests and ministers in his court. Mauryan society began embracing the philosophy of  ahimsa, and given the increased prosperity and improved law enforcement, crime and internal conflicts reduced dramatically. Also greatly discouraged was the  caste system  and orthodox discrimination, as Mauryans began to absorb the ideals and values of Jain and Buddhist teachings along with traditional  Vedic Hindu  teachings. Buddhism Ashoka initially practiced Hinduism but later embraced  Buddhism, following the  Kalinga War, he renounced expansionism and aggression, and the harsher injunctions of the  Arthashastra  on the use of force, intensive policing, and ruthless measures for tax collection and against rebels. Ashoka sent a mission led by his son  Mahinda  and daughter  Sanghamitta  to  Sri Lanka, whose king  Tissa  was so charmed with Buddhist ideals that he adopted them himself and made Buddhism the state religion. Ashoka sent many Buddhist missions o  West Asia,  Greece  and  South East Asia, and commissioned the construction of monasteries, schools and publication of Buddhist literature across the empire. He is believed to have built as many as 84,000 stupas across India i. e. Sanchi  and  Mahabodhi Temple, and he increased the popularity of Buddhism in  Afghanistan,  Thailand  and  North Asia  including  Siberia. Ashoka helped convene the  Third Buddhist Council  of India and South Asia's Buddhist orders, near his capital, a council that undertook much work of reform and expansion of the Buddhist religion. Jainism Emperor Chandragupta Maurya embraced  Jainism  after retiring. At an older age, Chandragupta renounced his throne and material possessions to join a wandering group of Jain monks. Chandragupta was a disciple of  Acharya Bhadrabahu. It is said that in his last days, he observed the rigorous but self purifying  Jain  ritual of  santhara  i. e. fast unto death, at  Shravana Belagola  in  Karnataka. However, his successor, Emperor Bindusara, was a follower of a Hindu ascetic movement,  Ajivika  and distanced himself from Jain and Buddhist movements. Samprati, the grandson of  Ashoka  also embraced  Jainism. Samrat Samprati was influenced by the teachings of Jain monk  Arya Suhasti Suri  and he is known to have built 125,000  Jain Temples  across India. Some of them are still found in towns of Ahmedabad, Viramgam, Ujjain & Palitana. It is also said that just like Ashoka, Samprati sent messengers & preachers to Greece, Persia & middle-east for the spread of Jainism. But to date no research has been done in this area. Thus, Jainism became a vital force under the Mauryan Rule. Chandragupta  &  Samprati  are credited for the spread of  Jainism  in  Southern India. Lakhs of  Jain Temples  &  Jain Stupas  were erected during their reign. But due to lack of royal patronage & its strict principles, along with the rise of  Shankaracharya  &  Ramanujacharya,  Jainism, once the major religion of southern India, began to decline. Architectural remains Architectural remains of the Maurya period are rather few. Remains of a  hypostyle  building with about 80 columns of a height of about 10 meters have been found in  Kumhrar, 5  km from  Patna  Railway station, and is one of the very few sites that has been connected to the rule of the Mauryas. The style is rather reminiscent of Persian Achaemenid architecture. The grottoes of  Barabar Caves, are another example of Mauryan architecture, especially the decorated front of the Lomas Rishi grotto. These were offered by the Mauryas to the Buddhist sect of the  Ajivikas. The most widespread example of Maurya architecture are the  Pillars of Ashoka, often exquisitely decorated, with more than 40 spread throughout the sub-continent. ————————————————- ————————————————- Natural history in the times of the Mauryas The protection of animals in India became serious business by the time of the Maurya dynasty; being the first empire to provide a unified political entity in India, the attitude of the Mauryas towards forests, its denizens and fauna in general is of interest. The Mauryas firstly looked at forests as a resource. For them, the most important forest product was the elephant. Military might in those times depended not only upon horses and men but also battle-elephants; these played a role in the defeat of  Seleucus,  Alexander's governor of the Punjab[. The Mauryas sought to preserve supplies of elephants since it was cheaper and took less time to catch, tame and train wild elephants than to raise them. Kautilya'sArthashastra  contains not only maxims on ancient statecraft, but also unambiguously specifies the responsibilities of officials such as the  Protector of the Elephant Forests: On the border of the forest, he should establish a forest for elephants guarded by foresters. The Office of the Chief Elephant Forrester should with the help of guards protect the elephants in any terrain. The slaying of an elephant is punishable by death.. —Arthashastra The Mauryas also designated separate forests to protect supplies of timber, as well as lions and tigers, for skins. Elsewhere the  Protector of Animals  also worked to eliminate thieves, tigers and other predators to render the woods safe for grazing cattle. The Mauryas valued certain forest tracts in strategic or economic terms and instituted curbs and control measures over them. They regarded all forest tribes with distrust and controlled them with bribery and political subjugation. They employed some of them, the food-gatherers or  aranyaca  to guard borders and trap animals. The sometimes tense and conflict-ridden relationship nevertheless enabled the Mauryas to guard their vast empire When  Ashoka  embraced  Buddhism  in the latter part of his reign, he brought about significant changes in his style of governance, which included providing protection to fauna, and even relinquished the royal hunt. He was the first ruler in history to advocate conservation measures for wildlife and even had rules inscribed in stone edicts. The edicts proclaim that many followed the king's example in giving up the slaughter of animals; one of them proudly states: Our king killed very few animals. —Edict on Fifth Pillar However, the edicts of Ashoka reflect more the desire of rulers than actual events; the mention of a 100 ‘panas' (coins) fine for poaching deer in royal hunting preserves shows that rule-breakers did exist. The legal restrictions conflicted with the practices freely exercised by the common people in hunting, felling, fishing and setting fires in forests. 24] Foundation of the Empire Relations with the Hellenistic world may have started from the very beginning of the Maurya Empire. Plutarch  reports that Chandragupta Maurya met withAlexander the Great, probably around  Taxila  in the northwest: â€Å"Sandrocottus, when he was a stripling, saw Alexander himself, and we are told that he often said in later times that Alexander narrowly missed making himself master of the country, since it s king was hated and despised on account of his baseness and low birth†. Reconquest of the Northwest (c. 310 BCE) Chandragupta ultimately occupied Northwestern India, in the territories formerly ruled by the Greeks, where he fought the satraps (described as â€Å"Prefects† in Western sources) left in place after Alexander (Justin), among whom may have been  Eudemus, ruler in the western Punjab until his departure in 317 BCE orPeithon, son of Agenor, ruler of the Greek colonies along the Indus until his departure for  Babylon  in 316 BCE. India, after the death of Alexander, had assassinated his prefects, as if shaking the burden of servitude. The author of this liberation was Sandracottos, but he had transformed liberation in servitude after victory, since, after taking the throne, he himself oppressed the very people he has liberated from foreign domination† Justin XV. 4. 2–13[ â€Å"Later, as he was preparing war against the prefects of Alexander, a huge wild elephant went to him and took him on his back as if tame, and he bec ame a remarkable fighter and war leader. Having thus acquired royal power, Sandracottos possessed India at the time Seleucos was preparing future glory. † Conflict and alliance with Seleucus (305 BCE) Silver coin ofSeleucus I Nicator, who fought Chandragupta Maurya, and later made an alliance with him. Seleucus I Nicator, the Macedonian  satrap  of the  Asian  portion of Alexander's former empire, conquered and put under his own authority eastern territories as far as Bactria and the Indus (Appian, History of Rome, The Syrian Wars 55), until in 305 BCE he entered in a confrontation with Chandragupta: â€Å"Always lying in wait for the neighboring nations, strong in arms and persuasive in council, he [Seleucus] acquired Mesopotamia, Armenia, ‘Seleucid' Cappadocia, Persis, Parthia, Bactria, Arabia, Tapouria, Sogdia, Arachosia, Hyrcania, and other adjacent peoples that had been subdued by Alexander, as far as the river Indus, so that the boundaries of his empire were the most extensive in Asia after that of Alexander. The whole region from Phrygia to the Indus was subject to Seleucus†. Appian, History of Rome, The Syrian Wars 55[28] Though no accounts of the conflict remain, it is clear that Seleucus fared poorly against the Indian Emperor as he failed in conquering any territory, and in fact, was forced to surrender much that was already his. Regardless, Seleucus and Chandragupta ultimately reached a settlement and through a treaty sealed in 305 BCE, Seleucus, according to Strabo, ceded a number of territories to Chandragupta, including southern  Afghanistan  and parts of  Persia. Accordingly, Seleucus obtained five hundred war elephants, a military asset which would play a decisive role at the  Battle of Ipsus  in 301 BCE. Marital alliance It is generally thought that Chandragupta married  Seleucus's  daughter, or a Greek  Macedonian  princess, a gift from Seleucus to formalize an alliance. In a return gesture, Chandragupta sent 500  war-elephants,  a military asset which would play a decisive role at the  Battle of Ipsus  in 302 BC. In addition to this treaty, Seleucus dispatched an ambassador,  Megasthenes, to Chandragupta, and later  Deimakos  to his son  Bindusara, at the Mauryan court at  Pataliputra  (modern  Patna  in  Bihar state). Later  Ptolemy II Philadelphus, the ruler of  Ptolemaic Egypt  and contemporary of  Ashoka the Great, is also recorded by  Pliny the Elder  as having sent an ambassador named  Dionysius  to the Mauryan court. Mainstream scholarship asserts that Chandragupta received vast territory west of the Indus, including the  Hindu Kush, modern day  Afghanistan, and the  Balochistan  province of  Pakistan. Archaeologically, concrete indications of Mauryan rule, such as the inscriptions of the  Edicts of Ashoka, are known as far as  Kandhahar  in southern Afghanistan. The treaty on â€Å"Epigamia† implies lawful marriage between Greeks and Indians was recognized at the State level, although it is unclear whether it occurred among dynastic rulers or common people, or both . Exchange of ambassadors Seleucus dispatched an ambassador,  Megasthenes, to Chandragupta, and later  Deimakos  to his son  Bindusara, at the Mauryan court at  Pataliputra  (Modern  Patna  in  Bihar state). Later  Ptolemy II Philadelphus, the ruler of  Ptolemaic Egypt  and contemporary of Ashoka, is also recorded by  Pliny the Elder  as having sent an ambassador named  Dionysius  to the  Mauryan  court. Exchange of presents Classical sources have also recorded that following their treaty, Chandragupta and Seleucus exchanged presents, such as when Chandragupta sent various  aphrodisiacs  to Seleucus: â€Å"And Theophrastus says that some contrivances are of wondrous efficacy in such matters [as to make people more amorous]. And Phylarchus confirms him, by reference to some of the presents which Sandrakottus, the king of the Indians, sent to Seleucus; which were to act like charms in producing a wonderful degree of affection, while some, on the contrary, were to banish love†Athenaeus of Naucratis. His son  Bindusara  Ã¢â‚¬ËœAmitraghata' (Slayer of Enemies) also is recorded in Classical sources as having exchanged present with  Antiochus I: â€Å"But dried figs were so very much sought after by all men (for really, as  Aristophanes  says, â€Å"There's really nothing nicer than dried figs†), that even Amitrochates, the king of the Indians, wrote toAntiochus, entreating him (it is  Hegesander  who tells this story) to buy and send him some sweet wine, and some dried figs, and a  sophist; and that Antiochus wrote to him in answer, â€Å"The dry figs and the sweet wine we will send you; but it is not lawful for a sophist to be sold in Greece†Ã‚  Athenaeus, â€Å"Deipnosophistae† XIV. 67 Greek population in India Greek population apparently remained in the northwest of the Indian subcontinent under Ashoka's rule. In his  Edicts of Ashoka, set in stone, some of them written in Greek, Ashoka describes that Greek population within his realm converted to Buddhism: â€Å"Here in the king's domain among the Greeks, the  Kambojas, the Nabhakas, the Nabhapamkits, the Bhojas, the Pitinikas, the  Andhras  and the Palidas, everywhere people are following Beloved-of-the-Gods' instructions in  Dharma†. Rock Edict Nb13  (S. Dhammika). Fragments of Edict 13 have been found in Greek, and a full Edict, written in both Greek and Aramaic has been discovered in  Kandahar. It is said to be written in excellent Classical Greek, using sophisticated philosophical terms. In this Edict, Ashoka uses the word  Eusebeia  (â€Å"Piety†) as the Greek translation for the ubiquitous â€Å"Dharma† of his other Edicts written in  Prakrit: â€Å"Ten years (of reign) having been completed, King Piodasses (Ashoka) made known (the doctrine of) Piety to men; and from this moment he has made men more pious, and everything thrives throughout the whole world. And the king abstains from (killing) living beings, and other men and those who (are) huntsmen and fishermen of the king have desisted from hunting. And if some (were) intemperate, they have ceased from their intemperance as was in their power; and obedient to their father and mother and to the elders, in opposition to the past also in the future, by so acting on every occasion, they will live better and more happily†. Buddhist missions to the West (c. 250 BCE) Front view of the single lion capital inVaishali. Also, in the  Edicts of Ashoka, Ashoka mentions the Hellenistic kings of the period as a recipient of his  Buddhist  proselytism, although no Western historical record of this event remain: â€Å"The conquest by  Dharma  has been won here, on the borders, and even six hundred  yojanas  (5,400–9,600 km) away, where the Greek king  Antiochosrules, beyond there where the four kings named  Ptolemy,  Antigonos,  Magas  and  Alexander  rule, likewise in the south among the  Cholas, the  Pandyas, and as far as  Tamraparni  (Sri Lanka). † (Edicts of Ashoka, 13th Rock Edict, S. Dhammika). Ashoka also claims that he encouraged the development of  herbal medicine, for men and animals, in their territories: â€Å"Everywhere within Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi's [Ashoka's] domain, and among the people beyond the borders, the  Cholas, the  Pandyas, the Satiyaputras, the Keralaputras, as far as  Tamraparni  and where the Greek king  Antiochos  rules, and among the kings who are neighbors of Antiochos, everywhere has Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi, made provision for two types of medical treatment: medical treatment for humans and medical treatment for animals. Wherever medical herbs suitable for humans or animals are not available, I have had them imported and grown. Wherever medical roots or fruits are not available I have had them imported and grown. Along roads I have had wells dug and trees planted for the benefit of humans and animals†. nd Rock Edict The Greeks in India even seem to have played an active role in the propagation of Buddhis m, as some of the emissaries of Ashoka, such as  Dharmaraksita, are described in  Pali  sources as leading Greek (â€Å"Yona†) Buddhist monks, active in Buddhist proselytism (the  Mahavamsa, Subhagsena and Antiochos III (206 BCE) Sophagasenus  was an Indian  Mauryan  ruler of the 3rd century BCE, described in ancient Greek sources, and named Subhagsena or Subhashsena in  Prakrit. His name is mentioned in the list of Mauryan princes, and also in the list of the Yadava dynasty, as a descendant of Pradyumna. He may have been a grandson of  Ashoka, or  Kunala, the son of Ashoka. He ruled an area south of the  Hindu Kush, possibly in  Gandhara. Antiochos III, the  Seleucid  king, after having made peace with  Euthydemus  in  Bactria, went to India in 206 BC nd is said to have renewed his friendship with the Indian king there: â€Å"He (Antiochus) crossed the Caucasus and descended into India; renewed his friendship with Sophagasenus the king of t he Indians; received more elephants, until he had a hundred and fifty altogether; and having once more provisioned his troops, set out again personally with his army: leaving Androsthenes of Cyzicus the duty of taking home the treasure which this king had agreed to hand over to him†. Ashoka was followed for 50 years by a succession of weaker kings. Brhadrata, the last ruler of the  Mauryan dynasty, held territories that had shrunk considerably from the time of emperor  Ashoka, although he still upheld the Buddhist faith. Sunga coup (185 BCE) Brihadrata  was assassinated in 185 BCE during a military parade, by the commander-in-chief of his guard, the  Brahmin  general  Pusyamitra Sunga, who then took over the throne and established theSunga dynasty. Buddhist records such as the  Asokavadana  write that the assassination of Brhadrata and the rise of the Sunga empire led to a wave of persecution for  Buddhists,  and a resurgence of  Hinduism. According to  Sir John Marshall,  Pusyamitra may have been the main author of the persecutions, although later Sunga kings seem to have been more supportive of Buddhism. Other historians, such as  Etienne Lamotte and  Romila Thapar, among others, have argued that archaeological evidence in favor of the allegations of persecution of Buddhists are lacking, and that the extent and magnitude of the atrocities have been exaggerated. Establishment of the Indo-Greek Kingdom (180 BCE) The fall of the Mauryas left the  Khyber Pass  unguarded, and a wave of foreign invasion followed. The  Greco-Bactrian  king,  Demetrius, capitalized on the break-up, and he conquered southern Afghanistan and Pakistan around 180 BC, forming the  Indo-Greek Kingdom. The Indo-Greeks would maintain holdings on the trans-Indus region, and make forays into central India, for about a century. Under them, Buddhism flourished, and one of their kings  Menander  became a famous figure of Buddhism, he was to establish a new capital of Sagala, the modern city of  Sialkot. However, the extent of their domains and the lengths of their rule are subject to much debate. Numismatic evidence indicates that they retained holdings in the subcontinent right up to the birth of Christ. Although the extent of their successes against indigenous powers such as the  Sungas,  Satavahanas, and  Kalingas  are unclear, what is clear is that Scythian tribes, renamed  Indo-Scythians, brought about the demise of the Indo-Greeks from around 70 BCE and retained lands in the trans-Indus, the region of  Mathura, and Gujarat. Reasons The decline of the Maurya Dynasty was rather rapid after the death of Ashoka/Asoka. One obvious reason for it was the succession of weak kings. Another immediate cause was the partition of the Empire into two. Had not the partition taken place, the Greek invasions could have been held back giving a chance to the Mauryas to re-establish some degree of their previous power. Regarding the decline much has been written. Haraprasad Sastri contends that the revolt by Pushyamitra was the result of brahminical reaction against the pro-Buddhist policies of Ashoka and pro-Jaina policies of his successors. Basing themselves on this thesis, some maintain the view that brahminical reaction was responsible for the decline because of the following reasons. 1. Prohibition of the slaughter of animals displeased the Brahmins as animal sacrifices were esteemed by them. 2. The book Divyavadana refers to the persecution of Buddhists by Pushyamitra Sunga. 3. Asoka's claim that he exposed the Budheveas (brahmins) as false gods shows that Ashoka was not well disposed towards Brahmins. 4. The capture of power by Pushyamitra Sunga shows the triumph of Brahmins 5. All of these four points can be easily refuted. 6. Asoka's compassion towards animals was not an overnight decision. Repulsion of animal sacrifices grew over a long period of time. Even Brahmins gave it up. 7. The book Divyavadana cannot be relied upon since it was during the time of Pushyamitra Sunga that the Sanchi and Barhut stupas were completed. The impression of the persecution of Buddhism was probably created by Menander's invasion, since he was a Buddhist. 8. The word ‘budheva' is misinterpreted because this word is to be taken in the context of some other phrase. Viewed like this, the word has nothing to do with brahminism. 9. The victory of Pushyamitra Sunga clearly shows that the last of the Mauryas was an incompetent ruler since he was overthrown in the very presence of his army, and this had nothing to do with brahminical reaction against Asoka's patronage of Buddhism. Moreover, the very fact that a Brahmin was the commander in chief of the Mauryan ruler proves that the Mauryas and the Brahmins were on good terms. After all, the distinction between Hinduism and Buddhism in India was purely sectarian and never more than the difference between saivism and vaishnavism. The exclusiveness of religious doctrines is a Semitic conception, which was unknown to India for a long time. Buddha himself was looked upon in his lifetime and afterwards as a Hindu saint and avatar and his followers were but another sect in the great Aryan tradition. Ashoka was a Buddhist in the same way as Harsha was a Budhist, or Kumarapala was a Jain. But in the view of the people of the day he was a Hindu monarch following one of the recognized sects. His own inscriptions bear ample withness to the fact. While his doctrines follow the middle path, his gifts are to the brahmibns, sramansa (Buddhist priests) and others equally. His own name of adoption is Devanam Priya, the beloved of the gods. Which gods? Surely the gods of the Aryan religion. Buddhism had no gods of its own. The idea that Ashoka was a kind of Buddhist Constantine declearing himself against paganism is a complete misreading of India conditions. Asoka was a kind or Buddhist Constantine declearing himself against paganism is a complete misreading of India conditions. Asoka was essentially a Hindu, as indeed was the founder of the sect to which he belonged. Raychaudhury too rebuts the arguments of Sastri. The empire had shrunk considerably and there was no revolution. Killing the Mauryan King while he was reviewing the army points to a palace coup detat not a revolution. The organization were ready to accept any one who could promise a more efficient organization. Also if Pushyamitra was really a representative of brahminical reaction he neighbouting kings would have definitely given him assistance. The argument that the empire became effete because of Asokan policies is also very thin. All the evidence suggests that Asoka was a stern monarch although his reign witnessed only a single campaign. He was shrewd enough in retaining Kalinga although he expressed his remorse. Well he was wordly-wise to enslave and-and-half lakh sudras of Kalinga and bring them to the Magadha region to cut forests and cultivate land. More than this his tours of the empire were not only meant for the sake of piety but also for keeping an eye on the centrifugal tendencies of the empire. Which addressing the tribal people Asoka expressed his willingness to for given. More draconian was Ashoka's message to the forest tribes who were warned of the power which he possessed. This view of Raychoudhury on the pacifism of the State cannot be substantiated. Apart from these two major writers there is a third view as expressed by kosambi. He based his arguments that unnecessary measures were taken up to increase tax and the punch-marked coins of the period show evidence of debasement. This contention too cannot be up held. It is quite possible that debased coins began to circulate during the period of the later Mauryas. On the other hand the debasement may also indicate that there was an increased demand for silver in relation to goods leading to the silver content of the coins being reduced. More important point is the fact that the material remains of the post-Asokan era do not suggest any pressure on the economy. Instead the economy prospered as shown by archaeological evidence at Hastinapura and Sisupalqarh. The reign of Asoka was an asset to the economy. The unification of the country under single efficient administration the organization and increase in communications meant the development of trade as well as an opening of many new commercial interest. In the post – Asokan period surplus wealth was used by the rising commercial classes to decorate religious buildings. The sculpture at Barhut and Sanchi and the Deccan caves was the contribution of this new bourgeoisie. Still another view regarding of the decline of Mauryas was that the coup of Pushyamitra was a peoples' revolt against Mauryans oppression and a rejection of the Maurya adoption of foreign ideas, as far interest in Mauryan Art. This argument is based on the view that Sunga art (Sculpture at Barhut and Sanchi) is more earthy and in the folk tradition that Maruyan art. This is more stretching the argument too far. The character of Sunga art changed because it served a different purpose and its donors belonged to different social classes. Also, Sunga art conformed more to the folk traditions because Buddhism itself had incorporated large elements of popular cults and because the donors of this art, many of whom may have been artisans, were culturally more in the mainstream of folk tradition. One more reasoning to support the popular revolt theory is based on Asoka's ban on the samajas. Asoka did ban festive meetings and discouraged eating of meat. These too might have entagonised the population but it is doubtful whether these prohibitions were strictly enforced. The above argument (people's revolt) also means that Asoka's policy was continued by his successors also, an assumption not confirmed by historical data. Further more, it is unlikely that there was sufficient national consciousness among the varied people of the Mauryan empire. It is also argued by these theorists that Asokan policy in all its details was continued by the later Mauryas, which is not a historical fact. Still another argument that is advanced in favour of the idea of revolt against the Mauryas is that the land tax under the Mauryas was one-quarter, which was very burden some to the cultivator. But historical evidence shows something else. The land tax varied from region to region according to the fertility of the soil and the availability of water. The figure of one quarter stated by Magasthenes probably referred only to the fertile and well-watered regions around Pataliputra. Thus the decline of the Mauryan empire cannot be satisfactorily explained by referring to Military inactivity, Brahmin resentment, popular uprising or economic pressure. The causes of the decline were more fundamental. The organization of administration and the concept of the State were such that they could be sustained by only by kings of considerably personal ability. After the death of Asoka there was definitely a weakening at the center particularly after the division of the empire, which inevitably led to the breaking of provinces from the Mauryan rule. Also, it should be borne in mind that all the officials owed their loyalty to the king and not to the State. This meant that a change of king could result in change of officials leading to the demoralization of the officers. Mauryas had no system of ensuring the continuation of well-planned bureaucracy. The next important weakness of the Mauryan Empire was its extreme centralization and the virtual monopoly of all powers by the king. There was a total absence of any advisory institution representing public opinion. That is why the Mauryas depended greatly on the espionage system. Added to this lack of representative institutions there was no distinction between the executive and the judiciary of the government. An incapable king may use the officers either for purposes of oppression or fail to use it for good purpose. And as the successors of Asoka happened to be weak, the empire inevitably declined. Added to these two factors, there is no conception of national unity of political consciousness. It is clear from the fact that even the resistance against the greeks as the hated miecchas was not an organized one. The only resistance was that of the local rulers who were afraid of losing their newly acquired territory. It is significant that when Porus was fighting Alexander, or when Subhagasena was paying tribute to Antiochus, they were doing so as isolated rulers in the northwest of India. They had no support from Pataliputra, nor are they even mentioned in any Indian sources as offering resistance to the hated Yavanas. Even the heroic Porus, who, enemy though he was, won the admiration of the Greeks, is left unrecorded in Indian sources. Another associated point of great importance is the fact that the Mauryan Empire which was highly centralized and autocratic was the first and last one of its kind. If the Mauryan Empire did not survive for long, it could be because of the failure of the successors of Asoka to hold on to the principles that could make success of such an empire. Further, the Mauryan empire and the philosophy of the empire was not in tune with the spirit of the time because Aryanism and brahminism was very much there. According to the Brahmin or Aryan philosophy, the king was only an upholder of dharma, but never the crucial or architecture factor influencing the whole of life. In other words, the sentiment of the people towards the political factor, that is the State was never established in India. Such being the reality, when the successors of Asoka failed to make use of the institution and the thinking that was needed to make a success of a centralized political authority. The Mauryan Empire declined without anyone's regret. Other factors of importance that contributed to the decline and lack of national unity were the ownership of land and inequality of economic levels. Land could frequently change hands. Fertility wise the region of the Ganges was more prosperous than northern Deccan. Mauryan administration was not fully tuned to meet the existing disparities in economic activity. Had the southern region been more developed, the empire could have witnessed economic homogeneity. Also the people of the sub-continent were not of uniform cultural level. The sophisticated cities and the trade centers were a great contrast to the isolated village communities. All these differences naturally led to the economic and political structures being different from region to region. It is also a fact that even the languages spoken were varied. The history of a

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